Chapter Notes

  • Notes for Chapter 2


    Chapter 2: Exploring the Americas

    Section 1: A changing world

    Expanding Horizons:

    • Fall of the Roman Empire caused societies at that time to fall back into harsh ways.More wars, less educated people ruled the world.
    • Also, people found that the Catholic religion at that time was too strict.They were disgusted at how the Catholic priests as well as the pope handled religion.These people who were against the Catholic Church began to fight against it and began a Protest movement—a movement which concentrated on rebuilding and changing the people should worship God.This movement was called Protestant Reformation.
    • While this was going on in Europe—Islam and its followers were spreading the religion known as Muslim from the Middle East through Africa.Their power began to grow because of the wealth of trade, taxes, as well as the vast wealth obtained because of their mining all of the gold, copper, and iron.
    • Also, as Islam’s power grew—Christians began to become afraid that they were not going to have access to the Holy Land (the birthplace of Christianity), Israel and so they began to expeditions known as the Crusades in order to regain control of holy places.
      • This caused first and consistent contact with the Middle East
      • Europeans began to trade with the Arab merchants for spices, sugar, silk and other goods which came from China and India by way of the Silk Road
      • Marco Polo, a young man at the time traveled to and spent years in China.When he returned, he wrote a book using the printing press in order to publish it and it had a very strong influence on everyone who read it.Others began to fantasize and become inspired to actually travel to other places like China.200 years later the same book inspired Christopher Columbus to travel as well.


      • Trade became popular and merchants began to make a lot of money getting goods (pepper, cinnamon, cloves, ginger as well as other goods like silk, gem stones)
      • Arab merchants sent goods overland to Italian merchants and charged very high prices which motivated Europeans to find a more direct route to skip out on the Arab merchants.



England in America


  • Spain and England have been at war—King Phillip II from Spain didn’t acknowledge Queen Elizabeth I as the rightful ruler of England—This is because although King Henry VIII was the king and her father, her mother, Anne Boleyn was only considered to be Henry’s mistress according to the Catholic faith.


  • This is a turning point in history because the Spanish Armada was defeated by Britain making Britain the super power.The Spanish Armada was the most powerful naval force in the world and they were utterly defeated by the British navy.Britain from here on out was the most powerful country in the world.


  • The Lost Colony of Roanoke:

    Significance of Roanoke was that it was the first attempt by England to establish in the New World.  John White was the leader and his granddaughter, Virginia Dare was the first baby born in the New World. 

  • Spain was at war with England, Queen Elizabeth I called for all ships to fight against the Spanish and John White went.  Three years later, he came back, there was no one at the village site. 

  • No one knows exactly what happened to Virginia Dare (who would have been 3 years old at the time) or the other settlers.

  • One theory is that they were killed by Spanish settlers

  • Another theory is that they assimilated into Native American culture

  • A third is that they just simply starved, perhaps got sick, and died before John White's return.


    Settlement at Jamestown

  • Sir Walter Raliegh
    • Roanoke was his last attempt at establishing a colony in North America
    • People had heard about Roanoke, and were scared to travel for a time.
    • December 106
      • 144 people traveled by ship (3 ships)
      • To build a new colony in North America
      • This time, only 60 settlers would survive


        Meanwhile….at the Virginia Colony…

    • Their main purpose to establish the colony was to look for gold.
      • And to attempt to trade in fish and furs
    • 40 of these rich guys died


    • Rolfe married Pocahontas (sorry John Smith)
  • However, several merchants (who saw the potential for profit) sought charters so that they could travel to the new world and establish or to organize settlements
  • They received charters from King James I

    How people at Jamestown survived

  • In April 1607, they arrived in a ship called Chesapeake Bay
    • They sailed up a river flowing into a bay
    • They named the river James
    • They named the settlement Jamestown after King James I
    • They settled on peninsula, this was important because they could defend it against attack.
  • 2 disadvantages of Jamestown
    • The water was swampy and carried a lot of mosquitos
    • The mosquitos were full diseases
    • Second disadvantage was that Jamestown did not have good farmland
  • They did have investors in their colony—From London
  • They were still looking for gold and silver
  • They forgot to grow food
    • In effect, a majority of the settlers died of hunger
    • As well as diseases
  • Supply ships did arrive a year later (1608), but only 38 of the settlers remained.

    The Virginia Company

  • A group of merchants received a charter “to make habitation” in America.
    • They called it Virginia
  • The Virginia Company
    • Joint-stock company—group of investors who have bought shares of a company
      • Each investor owned a part of the company
  • John Smith was the 27 year old captain who helped Jamestown survive
    • He was an experienced soldier and explorer
  • The reason he was so successful,
    • He forced the settlers to work
    • He explored the area
    • He managed to get corn from the local Native Americans led by Chief Powhatan (Pocahontas' dad)
  • Then he left
    • John Smith left the settlement in 1609 and 400 new settlers arrived that same year
    • He returned to England, but without strong leadership,
      • The settlers fought with the Indians
      • Nobody maintained crop growing
        • So everybody starved again
  • The colonists at Virginia didn’t find gold or silver
    • Huge surprise!
  • However, they did find a way to make money for their investors
    • TOBACCO!!!
    • And this is how smoking got started.It became a hit overseas and the demand was high for this plant.
  • John Rolfe
    • This man learned how to grow a type of tobacco using seeds from the West Indies
    • The first tobacco crop was grown in England in 1614
    • Virginia colony started to grow more tobacco and the town started to grow more successful.
      • They also started to get along better with the Native Americans
  • The people of the Virginia settlement started to rent plots of land
    • What they grew on their plots was their own
      • This signified a move towards private ownership (landowning)
        • Private ownership encouraged the colonists to grow more crops and to sell them
        • It also encouraged them to work harder (this time they were earning a profit for themselves and not for someone else)
  • The people of Virginia also noticed that they would not succeed when they were fed easily or when individual effort was not acknowledged.
    • “Our people were fed out of the common store, and labored jointly together.” This statement was made on how the settlers stopped working.
    • They avoided work according to the above statement.
  • When colonists found that they could compete against each other for good harvest and farming and operate for profit, they made greater efforts to succeed.



    MAKE THEM AN OFFER THEY CAN’T REFUSE! Make you an offer you can't refuse

  • When people caught wind of the idea that they could be successful in America,
    • More colonists would pay their way to America and were granted 100 acres of land. After all, the stuff was everywhere!
    • In order to attract more colonists, The Virginia Company issued land grants called “head rights” of 50 acres to those who were able to pay their own way.
    • A settler also received 50 acres for each family member over 15 years old and for each servant brought to Virginia.
      • As a consequence? THOUSANDS of people began to move to Virginia (by the boatloads).


  • Nearly all of Jamestown’s citizens were men.
    • They all worked for the Virginia Company
  • When the colony grew, they no longer wanted to be under the strict laws of the Virginia Company which was located in London.
    • The Virginia Company, then allowed the colonists have a voice in how they were governed
    • 10 towns then sent two representatives (we still do this today) called burgesses (today, we don't call them this anymore; we call them representatives) to an assembly (a gathering of people in this case, just representatives went to the assembly)
    • The assembly had the right to make local laws for the colony.
    • In July 30, 1619, The House of Burgesses met for the first time in a church in Jamestown.


                  love is in the airLOVE IS IN THE AIRlove is in the air (by the way this title is an actual song—Google it!)

  • In 1619 the Virginia Company sent 90 women to Jamestown
    • The idea behind this is that families (women and children) would change the energy of the settlement.
    • The more families there were in the settlement, the more attached the men were to the town.
  • Love is not free
    • Men who wanted to get married, had to pay 120 pounds of tobacco.
    • There were still more men in the town than women, but families were finally able to settle in Virginia and marriage was encouraged.

      The Dutch in Jamestown

      First Slaves?

  • A Dutch ship brought the first Africans (at least 20 were brought) over to Jamestown.They were sold to the Virginia planters to work in the tobacco fields
  • However, these first African people may have been actual servants and were not slaves.
  • Until 1640, some of the African laborers were free and even owned property.
    • William Tucker was the first African American born in the American Colonies
      • And he was a free man
  • Later on, however, as more ships came with unwilling African citizen passengers, these people were sold into slavery
  • Slavery was first recognized in Virginia law in the 1660s


     The Virginia Company investors made a heavy investment (they put in a lot of money) into the success of Jamestown.

  • Unfortunately, the investors were not seeing a return in their money.
  • And it didn't help that the colony had been attacked by Native Americans


  • King James stepped in and canceled the company charter for Jamestown and made it the first royal colony for England in America.






Religious Freedom

Coming to America: Not Just for Money

  • lJamestown settlers came to look for silver and gold


  • lA New Wave of Settlers is coming your way




    Backstory:  Remember the Protestant Reformation? (READ, DO NOT WRITE)

  • lProtestants were people who rebelled against the Catholic religion because of weaknesses within the church’s belief system and the papacy (the leadership of the pope)


    Remember the Renaissance? (READ, DO NOT WRITE)

  • lWhat was so important of about this you ask?
    • This social movement (this trend of the people)
      • ²Taught people to ask questions
      • ²Not take anything at face value
        • lIn other words, before the Renaissance, people believed in witches and black cats—simple superstition
          • Do you have one?Do you believe in superstitions?
        • lDuring the Renaissance, people started to question whether human beings were able to tell right from wrong
          • They used logic—the principals of reasoning.
      • ²Squanto and Samoset also helped the Pilgrims make a treaty with Chief Massasoit—A Wampanoag leader to the Wampanoag people
        • lThe treaty was signed in March 1621
        • lAnd they lived happily ever after….




    • Protestants wanted to change the Catholic Church however.
      • ²Another word for this is reform—to change
      • ²These Protestants were called Puritans
        • lThey still believed in the Catholic Church, but they wanted to make it better.
    • Protestants that wanted to leave and make up their own churches were called Separatists because they wanted nothing to do with the Catholic Church anymore.






    • However, they knew that they needed to form some sort of government
      • ²So they pledged their loyalty and allegiance to England because they are still English/British citizens at this point
        • lWith the intention of forming a “civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation.”
        • lThe settlers promised to obey the laws passed “for the general good of the colony.”
        • lThey called it the Mayflower Compact
    • Why is this important?
      • ²Because this was the first step in the development of our representative government in America




  • lBy this time, England had been a Protestant country since 1534 when King Henry VIII (the 8th) separated himself from the Catholic Church and made himself the head of the Church of England
    • However, there were still really dedicated Catholics out there and they did not like King Henry’s church so…
    • They dissented—they disagreed with the beliefs and actions of the Anglicans—King Henry’s church.
      • ²They still believed that the Pope was the head of the church and because of this, they were persecuted—treated harshly because of this belief.




  • lA group of Separatists decided that they wanted to make a trip to America
    • So, they talked to our friends The Virginia Company (the group of rich guys and made a deal
      • ²The deal was, that they could settle with the other rich guys in Virginia and no one would care how, or when they worshiped God.They were free religiously
      • ²However, there’s always a catch—remember rich guys love money—so another part of the deal was that in return for allowing the Separatists to settle in Virginia with religious freedom, THEY WANTED A SHARE IN PROFIT MADE by the Separatists—So, you see, nothing is ever really free.


        A NEW NAME


  • lDo you remember the word Pilgrimage?
    • It means a journey to a holy place
  • lThe Separatists felt strongminded about their journey
    • They felt that it had a purpose
    • They felt that God was supporting them
    • So, they called themselves Pilgrims because they felt that their journey, their trip held a spiritual and religious purpose.
  • lAny other person that traveled with them like servants, craftspeople, or poor farmers they called “strangers”.
    • Strangers were people that wanted to make a better life in America.
  • lHowever, today, if you know about the people that came from the Mayflower—we call them all pilgrims.




  • lOkay, let’s revisit our Separatist and Virginia Company Deal
    • The Virginia Company decided that it was okay if the Separatists joined them in the Virginia Colony as long as they paid them a fee from their profits.



  • lSo, our Separatist friends jumped on the Mayflower boat to sail to America.
    • They were ready to settle in Virginia but…
    • They missed the mark—they landed on Cape Cod which was north of Virginia.
      • ²Since they were not officially in Virginia they decided that they did not have to follow the laws of the Virginia Colony.
  • lBecause the pilgrims were not prepared to survive their settlement at Cape Cod,
    • Half of the pilgrims died from starvation, disease, and the cold




  • lWhether out of curiosity or not, a few of the Native Americans came close to the pilgrim settlement, but only two of them became their friends.
  • lSquanto and Samoset
    • Squanto had been kidnapped and taken to England and knew how to speak English
      • ²He was from the Pawtuxet tribe
      • ²Samoset was from the Abenaki tribe and was also friendly to the pilgrims
        • lThey both taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn, beans, pumpkins and they also showed them where to hunt and fish.
  • ²Parents use this against you


    Here is a simple conversation between parents and kids


    Kid: “Aww man! Why do we have to go to church on Sundays?”

    Parents: “Because we have to believe in God.  It’s the right thing to do.”

    Kid: “Who says?”

    Parents: “Don’t talk back just get dressed so that we can go!”


    The kids would represent the Protestants and the Parents represent the Catholic Church—You see, they believed in biblical tradition and the Protestants were beginning to ask why they had to believe the way that they did.



    Read and then write what is in BOLD


    Religious Freedom



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